Substituent control of DNA binding modes in a series of chalcogenoxanthylium photosensitizers as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry and topoisomerase I DNA unwinding assay
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Ruel E. McKnighta, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Bilgehan Onogula, Shivani R. Polasania, Michael K. Gannon IIb and Michael R. Dettyb, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author
Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Geneseo, 1 College Circle, Geneseo, NY 14454, USA
Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
The DNA binding efficacy and preferred mode of binding of a series of rhodamine-related chalcogenoxanthylium dyes was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using ctDNA, [poly(dCdG)]2 and [poly(dAdT)]2, and by a topoisomerase I DNA unwinding (Topo I) assay. The dyes of this study showed tight binding to ctDNA with binding constants, Kb, on the order of 106–107 M−1. The ITC and Topo I assay studies suggested that the 9-substituent has a strong impact on binding modes ranging from an apparent preference for intercalation with a 9-2-thienyl substituent (similar binding to [poly(dCdG)]2 and [poly(dAdT)]2, re-supercoiling of DNA in the Topo I assay at <10−5 M dye), to mixed binding modes with 9-phenyl derivatives (2- to 3-fold preference for binding to [poly(dAdT)]2, re-supercoiling of DNA in the Topo I assay at not, vert, similar2 × 10−5 M dye), to minor groove binding in a 9-(2-thienyl-5-diethylcarboxamide) derivative (strong preference for binding to [poly(dAdT)]2, did not show complete re-supercoiling in the Topo I assay). No binding to ctDNA was observed in one derivative with a 9-(3-thienyl-2-diethylcarboxamide) substituent, which cannot be co-planar with the xanthylium core. In series of dyes where the chalcogen atom was varied, the selenoxanthylium derivatives had 2- to 3-fold higher values of Kb than the corresponding xanthylium, thioxanthylium, or telluroxanthylium derivatives, which all showed comparable values of Kb. The chalcogen atom appeared to have little influence on binding mode.
Article Source: Science Direct Website